If you have not done so already you can determine your Jungian-Keirsey type and temperament by taking the Jungian-Keirsey Type and Temperament Self-Assessment.
What I am calling "The Jungian-Keirsey System" is a system that combines the best of two personality type theories together - The Psychological Type Theory postulated by Carl Jung and the Keirsey Temperament Theory postulated by David Keirsey.
Carl Jung, a Swiss psychoanalyst, is credited with developing the personality type theory model that was published in 1923 in a book called "Psychological Types." At about the same time a woman named Katharine Briggs was developing her own theory of personalities by reading biographies and observing people she knew. When Katharine read Carl Jung's book she saw that his theory was consistent with hers in every way but was more complete. She, along with her daughter Isabel Myers, began studying the work of Carl Jung in earnest and eventually added their own concepts to his work, creating the Myers-Briggs System, which is a system of 16 different Myers-Briggs types. Interestingly, each of David Keirsey's four temperaments describe exactly four of Briggs and Myers types.
Isabel Myers believed that if people could learn to understand and accept each other's differences that peace could be achieved in the world. So, when World War II began to rip the world apart, Isabel Myers, along with help from her mother, began developing a type indicator that would help people determine their psychological preferences so that they could find work that fully utilized their inborn talents and thus be most effective in the war effort.
For two decades the type indicator they developed, later known as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), was tested on college and medical school students to ensure reliability and validity before bringing it to a much wider audience. Until 1975 the MBTI was only available for research purposes. In 1975 Consulting Psychologists Press (CPP) took over publishing the MBTI and made it available to qualified practitioners that had been through a training course on the Myers-Briggs system. It was at that time that the MBTI became available to anyone, through these qualified practitioners.
An understanding of four distinct patterns of human behavior can be traced back to the well known philosopher Hippocrates, around 370 B.C. He observed four basic humors (literally bodily fluids), or approaches to life: Phlegmatic, Choleric, Melancholic, and Sanguine. Around 340 B.C. Plato also noticed four distinct patterns of human behavior and gave the names Guardian, Artisan, Idealist, and Rational to the same four basic humors. In 325 B.C. Aristotle gave these same four humors the names Dialectical, Ethical, Proprietary, and Hedonic. There have been many other famous theorists throughout the ages that have noticed this pattern of four distinct temperaments but none who has developed it as extensively as David Keirsey.
In the 1960s, David Keirsey, an American educational psychologist, reviewed the temperament theories from the past and developed his own classification of personalities into four types: Dionysian, Epimethean, Apollonian, and Promethean (he later changed the names, for simplicity, to Artisan, Guardian, Idealist, and Rational, respectively). For more than two decades, he served as a consultant to both educators and psychologists, with continued research and innovations in his theory of the four temperaments (see table below).
|Theorist||Names Given for the Four Distinctly Different Temperaments|
|Hippocrates 370 B.C.||Sanguine|
|Plato 340 B.C.||Artisan|
|Aristotle 325 B.C.||Hedonic|
|Galen 190 A.D.||Sanguine||Melancholic||Choleric||Phlegmatic|
|Myers 1958||Probing (SP)||Scheduling (SJ)||Friendly (NF)||Tough-minded (NT)|
When David learned of the 16 different Myers-Briggs types he readily saw within them the four temperament patterns that he had been developing. In 1998, David Keirsey wrote the book "Please Understand Me II." In it he divided his four temperaments into two categories (roles), each with two role variants. The first edition of his book, written in 1978, didn't explain these different roles and role variants if they already existed. Four temperaments each with two roles and each role with two role variants equals 16 types altogether. These correlated very nicely with Katharine Briggs' and Isabel Myers' 16 Myers-Briggs types (each of which are 4-letter acronyms like ESTJ and INFP, see table below).
|How Keirsey's Temperaments/Roles Correlate with the 16 Myers-Briggs Types|
(Ways of thinking
Expressive or Reserved?
(what each is good at in italics)
SJ (Sensory and Judicious)
SP (Sensory and Perceptive)
(the art of
to better one's
position in the
here and now)
NF (iNtuitive and Feeling)
(ability to deal
with people in
NT (iNtuitive and Thinking)
ways & means
achieve a well-
of a system)
The Jungian-Keirsey system is a personality system that's based on the personality type theory model first developed by the famous Swiss psychoanalyst, Carl G. Jung, and later expanded by a mother and daughter team, Katharine Briggs and Isabel Myers. It is also based on the temperament theory work of David Keirsey. Carl Jung's model was explained in detail in his book, "Psychological Types" that was published in 1923. David Keirsey's model was explained best in his book, "Please Understand Me II" that was published in 1998, 20 years after his first book, "Please Understand Me." Like all of the systems on this website, the Jungian-Keirsey system is universal and applies equally well to everyone in the world - it is not limited to race, culture or creed. It describes different personality styles and behavioral characteristics extremely well and has a multitude of uses in real life as you will read about in the next section, "What is the practical use of the Jungian-Keirsey system?"
I will not go into how the system works here because I have a separate section for that but everything a human being can possibly think requires the use of at least one of the eight mental processes described by this system! If you would like to find out which two of the eight mental processes your mind prefers to use, first determine your Jungian-Keirsey type (take my Jungian-Keirsey Type and Temperament Self-Assessment if you have not done so already) and then read about the Mental Processes.
The Jungian-Keirsey system was designed to help people value and appreciate themselves and others. Each Jungian-Keirsey type has individual patterns of behavior and character that are distinct from all other types. In some cases the behavior of two (or more) types is similar but the motivations behind that behavior are always different due to the different mental processes that dominate each unique type.
In this system there are 16 different personality types that cluster into 4 different temperament categories (4 types to each temperament category). For simplicity, I have chosen to use the Myers-Briggs 4-letter acronyms to describe each of my Jungian-Keirsey types because it is a nice, short descriptor. The 4-letter acronyms will be meaningful once you understand "How the Jungian-Keirsey System Works." I have chosen to use the colors Blue, Green, Gold, and Orange to describe the four temperaments (NF, NT, SJ, and SP, respectively).The 4 Jungian-Keirsey Types of the "True Blue" (NF) Temperament
The 4 Jungian-Keirsey Types of the "Deep Green" (NT) Temperament
The 4 Jungian-Keirsey Types of the "Solid Gold" (SJ) Temperament
The 4 Jungian-Keirsey Types of the "Bold Orange" (SP) Temperament
The Jungian-Keirsey system is used in numerous practical ways to help people. As with the other powerful systems on this website the Jungian-Keirsey system can be especially useful for increasing fulfillment and satisfaction in many important areas of life, such as relationships, career, education, self-esteem, leadership and parenting. I will speak about each in turn and recommend reference material for each area that I feel would be particularly helpful to your understanding of that dimension of life.
In relationships, the Jungian-Keirsey system can be used for improving communication, understanding, synergy and connectedness by valuing differences between people. For more information on how you can improve your relationships using the Jungian-Keirsey system, as well as all the other systems I use, visit my section on Relationship Compatibility. As interdependent beings, it is my belief that our happiness, in large part, depends on the quality of our relationships. And the quality of our relationships depends on our self-esteem and willingness to cherish other people's uniqueness. And our self-esteem comes from making moment-to-moment choices in alignment with our deepest values. And making moment-to-moment choices in alignment with our deepest values comes from knowing ourselves deeply and honoring the still, small voice inside (our inner wisdom). For more information on relationship compatibility between all of the types in the Jungian-Keirsey system I highly recommend Just Your Type by Paul D. Tieger and Barbara Barron-Tieger as well as Intimacy and Type by Jane Hardy Jones and Ruth G. Sherman. Other Jungian-Keirsey books on relationships that I like are LoveTypes by Dr. Alexander Avila as well as 16 Ways to Love Your Lover by Otto Kroeger and Janet M. Thuesen.
Vocational Guidance is another great use for the Jungian-Keirsey system. Each of us has innate talents that come so naturally to us that we don't even see them as gifts. Unfortunately, many people don't know what their inner gifts are. That's one of the reasons I created this website! In his book, The Pathfinder: How to Choose or Change Your Career for a Lifetime of Satisfaction and Success Nicholas Lore surveyed 1,500 people and found that only 10% of them actually felt their work fit their personality and was a vehicle for full self-expression. 20% of people enjoyed their work most of the time, 30% accepted their work without a struggle, 30% go to work because they are forced to by circumstances, and 10% feel as though their job is hell! So, perhaps as many as 70% of people don't enjoy their work. Do you think that affects their relationships? Health? Self-esteem? Enjoyment of life? Inner peace? World peace!? For more information on how the Jungian-Keirsey system can be used for vocational guidance visit my Vocational Guidance section and/or read the following books: (1) Do What You Are by Paul D. Tieger and Barbara Barron-Tieger, (2) Career Match by Shoya Zichy with Ann Bidou, and (3) What's Your Type of Career by Donna Dunning.
In education, the Jungian-Keirsey system can help teachers understand the different ways that students prefer to learn. An appreciation for different learning styles has begun to be implemented in some schools and among some teachers but bureaucratic school systems seem to change slowly. Teachers with an understanding of the Jungian-Keirsey system are able to help each child with a different temperament learn in ways most natural for him or her. For example, most Solid Golds (the SJ temperament) do very well with the structured, step-by-step, rote memorization method of learning that is so prevalent in schools today but most Bold Oranges don't! Bold Oranges need to see the immediate practical application of what they are learning. They are adventurous and spontaneous and find the slow, structured learning environment in most schools stifling and boring. They sometimes get labeled as having ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) or ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder) because of their penchant for excitement. They can be put on drugs like Ritalin when they really just need a learning environment that caters to their need for hands-on experience rather than theory. Knowledge of the Jungian-Keirsey system (as well as all the other systems on this website) would enable teachers to understand the different needs of their students and tailor their teaching to reflect their awareness of different learning styles. Two of my favorite Jungian-Keirsey books on teaching are: (1) Effective Teaching, Effective Learning: Making the Personality Connection in Your Classroom by Alice M. Fairhurst and Lisa L. Fairhurst and (2) So Each May Learn: Integrating Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences by Harvey F. Silver, Richard W. Strong, and Matthew J. Perini. This last book is especially valuable because it incorporates the Multiple Intelligences system with the Jungian-Keirsey system for even more effective teaching.
The Jungian-Keirsey system can also build self-esteem by helping people better understand their unique gifts and talents as well as those of others. It is horrifying to me how many kids grow up with low self-esteem just because they feel different from other people and don't understand why. There are 4 different temperaments and 16 different types in this system. If there was an equal distribution of the 4 temperaments there would be 25% of each. If there was an equal distribution of the 16 types there would be 6.25% of each type. Yet, extensive data collection from millions of Jungian-Keirsey Type Indicators (aka as the MBTI) indicates that there are more of some temperaments and types than others. Approximately 46.6% of the population are Solid Golds (SJs), 21.4% are Bold Oranges (SPs), 16.3% are Deep Greens (NTs), and 15.7% are True Blues (NFs). Solid Golds are the type to feel most at home in the United States because almost half the population shares their temperament (and self-assessments given in other countries seem to indicate similar percentages there)! Bold Oranges feel pretty at home in the U.S. too. But Deep Greens and True Blues often feel misunderstood, especially if their parents were of a different temperament. In that case they can't relate to many of their peers or their parents. This situation can even get exacerbated further when we look at individual Jungian-Keirsey types. Consider the following table, colored by temperament type (e.g., Solid Gold temperament = Gold color, etc.):
Estimated Frequencies of the Myers-Briggs Types in the United States
(Source: Journal of Psychological Type, Volume 37, 1996)
Approximately 15.8% of the U.S. population are ISTJs while only 2.5% of the population are INFJs and another 2.5% are ENFJs. Most INFJs and ENFJs (and other types with low percentages) felt very misunderstood as children, especially if they were also one of the less frequent aura colors (Oranges, Abstract Tans, Crystals, Lavenders or Indigos) or less frequent Enneagram types (type #4 or #5). Yet the less frequent a type in the population the more especially needed are their innate gifts and talents! Sadly, many of these young kids never find their voice in life and, as Benjamin Disraeli said, "....die with their music still locked up inside them." As an INFJ type #4 I want to inspire and empower everyone to live their greatest vision in a context of love and joy! Two of my favorite books for understanding the different Jungian-Keirsey temperaments are (1) Please Understand Me II by David Keirsey and (2) The Four Temperaments by Renee Baron. Two of my favorite books for understanding the Jungian-Keirsey types are: (1) What Type Am I? by Renee Baron (she also knows the Enneagram system exceptionally well and has written one of my favorite books on it called The Enneagram Made Easy) and (2) Introduction to Type by Isabel Briggs Myers.
Enhancing leadership effectiveness is another practical application of the Jungian-Keirsey system. Research on leadership reveals that successful leaders value human differences, develop constructive relationships among team members and communicate well with team members. All of these traits of successful leaders have to do with valuing, understanding and being able to develop rapport with people. Since that is one of the main objectives of the Jungian-Keirsey system many leaders are using the principles they've learned from this system to enhance their leadership effectiveness. Two of my favorite Jungian-Keirsey books on leadership are: (1) YOU: Being More Effective in Your MBTI Type by Roger R. Pearman, Michael M. Lombardo, and Robert W. Eichinger, and (2) Hardwired Leadership by Roger Pearman.
In parenting, the Jungian-Keirsey system can help parents truly understand and nurture the individuality of their children. With knowledge of their child's Jungian-Keirsey type and temperament (and his/her types from the other systems on this website) parents can increase their children's self-esteem by encouraging them to use their natural gifts and talents. Two of my favorite Jungian-Keirsey books on parenting are: (1) Nurture by Nature by Paul D. Tieger and Barbara Barron-Tieger, and (2) Mother Styles: Using Personality Type to Discover Your Parenting Strengths by Janet P. Penley.
By gaining a better understanding of our Jungian-Keirsey type and temperament (and our type from each of the other systems on this website too) we can develop healthier relationships, choose more satisfying careers, learn better, become better parents, and basically lead more productive, fulfilling lives. We can live more gracefully and peacefully from our essential nature, feeling connected with one another rather than separate, working with one another synergistically rather than struggling and competing against one another.
Clicking on any of the active links below will give you a more full description of that Jungian-Keirsey type, which will open in a new window.
ENFJ, ENFP, INFJ and INFP are the 4 Jungian-Keirsey types that constitute the True Blue Temperament (see Brief Descriptions of the 4 Jungian-Keirsey Temperaments below for information on True Blues)
ENFJ: The Teacher/Educator/Envisioner/Group Leader. ENFJs are master communicators and natural diplomats. They have a talent for seeing potential in others and sincerely want to help bring out that potential. They are known for being enthusiastic, motivating, inspiring, warm, and empathetic. They are very intuitive and highly attuned to the emotions, needs, and motivations of others. They often act as catalysts for individual or group growth. They are relationship-oriented and good at promoting harmony. They are responsible, conscientious and goal-oriented. Naturally sociable, they often facilitate others in a group and can provide charismatic leadership. They often feel a call to a life's work or mission.
ENFP: The Motivator/Advocate/Champion of Others/Explorer. ENFPs are highly imaginative, creative, insightful and always full of new ideas and future possibilities for people. One of their greatest challenges is staying with one idea long enough to see it through to completion before another new idea captures their enthusiastic interest. They are energetic, vivacious, charming, spontaneous and flexible. They have a talent for seeing what's not being said and voicing unspoken truths. They are excellent at communicating, motivating and inspiring action in others. They get bored with repetition and are restless to discover their true direction. They are relationship-oriented but value their freedom and autonomy.
INFJ: The Foreseer/Counselor/Visionary/Mystic Writer. INFJs want to understand what motivates people and are insightful about others. Like all True Blues, INFJs are interested in personal growth - their own and others. They are reserved, sensitive, empathetic, conscientious, and determined. They have a rich inner life and highly value personal integrity. INFJs are serious, profound thinkers who seek to find meaning in life. They are sometimes mystical and visionary. They have a talent for foreseeing the future and bridging differences between people. INFJs are very idealistic and many feel as though they have a mission to fulfill in life. They can be single-minded regarding personal values and convictions.
INFP: The Idealist/Harmonizer/Healer/Philosopher. Above all INFPs want an external life that's congruent with their values. INFPs are reserved, sensitive, creative, curious, sacrificial and adaptable. Like all True Blues, INFPs seek to understand people and help them fulfill their potential. They have passionate convictions and strong ideals. They are contemplative, philosophical and enjoy exploring moral questions. INFPs have a talent for facilitative listening and knowing the truth behind what is being said. They dislike rules, schedules and deadlines and sometimes struggle with structure and getting their lives in order. INFPs are calm and gentle and able to go with the flow, unless one of their core values is threatened.
ENTJ, ENTP, INTJ and INTP are the 4 Jungian-Keirsey types that constitute the Deep Green Temperament (see Brief Descriptions of the 4 Jungian-Keirsey Temperaments below for information on Deep Greens)
ENTJ: The CEO/Strategist/Mobilizer/Leader. ENTJs are born leaders who like to be in charge. They are decisive, frank, structured, goal-oriented and ambitious. They want to be the best at whatever they do. ENTJs quickly see illogical, inefficient procedures and policies. They have a talent for developing and implementing comprehensive systems to solve organizational problems. They also have a talent for being innovative, coordinating multiple projects and marshaling resources. They are ingenious, strategic problem solvers. They like intellectual exchange and often make great public speakers and debaters. They often feel stressed and overwhelmed by trying to manage all the details of time and resources.
ENTP: The Explorer/Inventor/Strategizer/Entrepreneur. ENTPs are born risk-takers who are alert to all possibilities. Like ENFPs, their mind is constantly coming up with new and creative ideas. Their greatest challenge is trying to implement them all. They are entrepreneurial, innovative, enterprising and resourceful; talented at building prototypes and initiating new projects. ENTPs are enthusiastic, charming, gregarious, comedic and witty but they can also be outspoken and love a challenging debate. They are inquisitive, curious, quick thinking and love learning. ENTPs highly value their freedom and independence. They are spontaneous and sometimes a little too impulsive. ENTPs are good at reading other people.
INTJ: The Conceptualizer/Director/Visionary/Planner/Innovator. INTJs are driven for self-improvement and maximizing achievements. They are insightful, visionary, skeptical, independent, and individualistic. They have original, theoretical, scientific minds and are ingenious at creative problem solving. They are most skilled in creating theories and systems. They quickly see patterns in external events and develop long-range strategies for implementing their ideas and achieving their goals. They're intense, single-minded, and determined. They have high standards of competence and performance - for themselves and others. They're responsible, organized and good at follow through. They're reserved and private.
INTP: The Logician/Designer/Theorizer/Scholar. INTPs are the masters of conceptual logic. They are abstract, scientific, original thinkers who seek to develop logical explanations for everything that interests them. They often want to understand how everything in the universe works. They are idiosyncratic, nonconforming and very independent. They are curious, analytical and insightful. They naturally notice inconsistencies, contradictions and flaws of logic in others' thinking. INTPs are also private and introspective. They can be so caught up in thought that they can struggle with attending to the physical world. They've been accused of being absent-minded, like Albert Einstein, a quintessential INTP.
ESTJ, ESFJ, ISTJ and ISFJ are the 4 Jungian-Keirsey types that constitute the Solid Gold Temperament (see Brief Descriptions of the 4 Jungian-Keirsey Temperaments below for information on Solid Golds)
ESTJ: The Supervisor/Implementor/Traditionalist/Expeditor. ESTJs excel at organizing projects and people to get things done. Like ENTJs, they like being in charge and can be outspoken and assertive. They like to quickly make and implement decisions. They are outgoing, logical, practical, and dependable. They focus on getting results in the most efficient, orderly way possible. They're responsible, hardworking and goal-oriented. They have a clear set of rules and procedures that they systematically follow and want others to also. They like activities to go according to plan and get frustrated when things don't work out the way they expected them to. Like all Solid Golds, they value family, convention and tradition.
ESFJ: The Facilitator/Outgoing Caretaker/Provider/Dutiful Host. ESFJs enjoy helping others. They like to be needed and appreciated so they naturally notice what others need in their day-to-day lives and try to provide it. That is one of their talents. They are energetic, enthusiastic, sociable and engaging. They enjoy developing and nurturing relationships. ESFJs are personable, sympathetic and cooperative. They like working with others, value harmony, and are often active in service organizations and the community in which they live. They are conscientious, loyal and responsible. They like to be organized, orderly, accurate and complete tasks on time. ESFJs enjoy praise but can take criticism very personally at times.
ISTJ: The Planner/Inspector/Investigator/Administrator. ISTJs are perhaps the most reliable, responsible, loyal and dutiful of all the types. That's because they honor their commitments and do what is right. They are hardworking, trustworthy and can be counted on without question. They have an eye for detail and are systematic, painstakingly thorough and good at follow-through. They have a talent for storing information and are a veritable storehouse of data, facts and trivia. They take great pleasure in making everything orderly and organized - their work, home and life. ISTJs are conservative, reserved and logical. Like all Solid Golds, they value convention, tradition and being active in the community.
ISFJ: The Assistant/Protector/Supporter/Reserved Caretaker. Like ISTJs, ISFJs are also reliable, responsible, loyal and dutiful. The "F" in ISFJ (as opposed to the "T" in ISTJ) makes ISFJs quietly friendly, tactful and concerned with others' welfare. They notice and remember specifics about people who are important to them. They are reserved, modest and unassuming so they often find themselves working behind the scenes, helping others. They have a talent for being patient and listening well and often enter the helping professions. They are thorough, painstaking and accurate in their work. They strive to create an orderly and harmonious environment at work and at home. They are traditional and conventional.
ESTP, ESFP, ISTP and ISFP are the 4 Jungian-Keirsey types that constitute the Bold Orange Temperament (see Brief Descriptions of the 4 Jungian-Keirsey Temperaments below for information on Bold Oranges)
ESTP: The Opportunist/Promoter/Executor/Wheeler-Dealer. ESTPs are master promoters, negotiators and deal-makers. They're energetic and constantly on the go. They learn best by doing and like risk, challenge and adventure. They take a pragmatic approach to life and focus on immediate, concrete results. ESTPs want tangible measures of success and work hard to get them. They're alert, confident, witty and persuasive. They're spontaneous, sometimes outrageous, and enjoy life here-and-now. They're extremely resourceful and adaptable. They enjoy winning people over. They can be very caring towards family and friends but they also enjoy the exhilaration of living on the edge and need some freedom.
ESFP: The Entertainer/Motivator/Presenter/Performer. ESFPs are caring, generous and enjoy helping others. They are also gregarious, energetic, vivacious, and outgoing. ESFPs are exuberant lovers of life, people, and material comforts. Like ESTPs, they learn best by doing. Because of their warmth, optimism, charm, expressiveness and acceptance of others, they are usually well-liked. ESFPs are natural actors and performers who enjoy entertaining others. They enjoy new experiences and want to fully enjoy life in the here-and-now. They bring common sense and a practical, realistic approach to their work but they also try to make work fun. They are flexible and spontaneous and adapt well to new people and environments.
ISTP: The Analyzer/Artisan/Operator/Athlete. ISTPs enjoy working with machines, tools and anything requiring hands-on skills. They seek action, excitement, adventure and challenge. They enjoy observing and analyzing how things work. They enjoy taking things apart and actively solving problems with a practical, hands-on approach. ISTPs are reserved, private and curious observers of life. They can be witty but not wordy. ISTPs are storehouses of information. They are interested in cause and effect and organize information using logical principles. They are realistic and usually street smart too. They are resourceful, adaptable and flexible. They are often athletic and competitive yet value efficiency of effort.
ISFP: The Artisan/Composer/Producer/Gentle Artist. ISFPs are quiet, sensitive, gentle, friendly and kind. They are loyal, sympathetic and compassionate. They are practical and service-oriented but like to have their own space and work within their own time frame. They are patient, accepting and non-judgmental. They have a live-and-let-live attitude and are sensitive to conflicts and disagreements. They enjoy the present moment and simple pleasures of life, like the beauty of nature and love of animals. They're often artistic and/or graceful. They feel things deeply and have strong values. They love their freedom but are loyal to people who are important to them. They're modest, unassuming, spontaneous and adaptable.
True Blue: True Blues, like Deep Greens, are intuitive, imaginative and focus on ingenious solutions to problems because of their shared letter "N." However, True Blues are more empathetic, sympathetic, soul searching, personable and diplomatic than Deep Greens. True Blues are idealistic, enthusiastic, romantic, credulous and humanistic. They want to uplift, motivate and inspire people to be all they can be! They want to help themselves and others develop their full spiritual potential. True Blues want to create a perfect, peaceful, harmonious world where everyone understands, accepts and loves one another. True Blues need to understand their own and others' deepest feelings. They value integrity, intimacy, compassion, uniqueness, authenticity and seek meaning and significance in life. They have the gift of diplomatic intelligence. Famous True Blues: Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., Oprah Winfrey, Mikhail Gorbachev, Eleanor Roosevelt, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Princess Diana, Emily Dickinson, Joan of Arc, Nelson Mandela, Carl Rogers.
Deep Green: Deep Greens, like True Blues, are future-oriented and focus on innovative ways to change and improve things because of their shared letter "N." However, Deep Greens are more cerebral, analytical, theoretical, skeptical and scientific than True Blues. Deep Greens need to logically understand and explain the world around them. They synthesize complex information, foresee future trends and develop long-range strategic goals. Deep Greens are mentally intense, constantly asking "why?" and "how?" to conceptually understand the underlying fundamental principles of how anything works. Deep Greens enjoy inventing, developing and designing models, theories and systems. They value knowledge, competence, objectivity, autonomy, logic and curiosity. They have the gift of strategic intelligence. Famous Deep Greens: Albert Einstein, Bill Gates, Stephen Hawking, Benjamin Franklin, Carl Jung, Charles Darwin, Thomas Edison, Marie Curie, Ayn Rand, Sir Isaac Newton, Aristotle, Plato, Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Richard Nixon.
Solid Gold: Solid Golds, like Bold Oranges, focus on the realities and details of daily living because of their shared "S." Unlike Bold Oranges, Solid Golds like to be punctual, scheduled, organized, meticulous and plan ahead. They're conforming, responsible and loyal. Solid Golds like to stick to standard ways of doing things and are the backbone of institutions. They respect and honor traditions, customs, and laws of society which give them a sense of security, stability, and belonging. They value procedures and respect the chain of command. Feeling useful and being of practical service is important to them. Solid Golds are cautious and take commitments very seriously. They're motivated by the need to be dependable, conscientious, dutiful and protective of others. Solid Golds have the gift of logistical intelligence. Famous Solid Golds: Queen Victoria, Queen Elizabeth II, Gerald Ford, George HW Bush, General Colin Powell, John D. Rockefeller, Felix Unger of The Odd Couple, "Dr. Laura" Schlessinger, Ross Perot, Janet Reno, Nancy Reagan, Barbara Bush.
Bold Orange: Bold Oranges, like Solid Golds, are pragmatic, realistic and live in the here-and-now because of their shared "S." Unlike Solid Golds, Bold Oranges dislike routine, structured work, hierarchical order and standard ways of doing things. They like to be able to act freely and spontaneously in the moment. Bold Oranges are very observant and have keen senses. Bold Oranges just want to enjoy life and experience it; they don't need to understand it deeply (like Deep Greens and True Blues) or be dutiful and plan it (like Solid Golds). They enjoy freedom, variety, flexibility and stimulation. Bold Oranges are adaptable, generous, optimistic, playful and have a great sense of humor. Bold Oranges value hands-on experience, independence, resourcefulness and want to make an impact on life. Bold Oranges have the gift of tactical intelligence. Famous Bold Oranges: George W. Bush, Elvis Presley, Magic Johnson, John F. Kennedy, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Donald Trump, Michael Jordan, Madonna, Amelia Earhart, Charles Lindbergh, Jack Nicholson, Marilyn Monroe, Hugh Hefner.
Clicking on any of the active links below will give you a more full description of that Jungian-Keirsey temperament combination, which will open in a new window.
True Blue/Deep Green: These insightful, deep thinkers are curious to find answers to "the big questions," such as "Who am I?".... "What makes us who we are?".... "What are my unique talents?".... "What is the meaning of life?".... "Does God exist?".... "How can I contribute something meaningful and significant to life?" True Blue/Deep Greens are the most logical, analytical and cerebral of all the True Blue combination types. They love coming up with new ideas to help people develop their full potential and achieve personal fulfillment. They also want to create more peace, love and goodwill in the world. They enjoy working with people directly but also have a strong need for independence and alone time to read, study and learn. Many True Blue/Deep Greens enjoy intensive research into subjects that interest them. Intellectual stimulation, philosophical contemplation and self-actualization are very important to True Blue/Deep Greens. They enjoy using their extensive base of knowledge to uplift, inspire, motivate, empower and champion others. Healthy True Blue/Deep Greens are: inspirational, humanitarian, philosophical, spiritual, inquisitive, introspective, reflective, imaginative, creative and idealistic.
True Blue/Solid Gold: These service-oriented, loyal, dependable, hard working people go about helping others and contributing to the greater good in a traditional, responsible, organized and friendly way. They have a great deal of innate "emotional intelligence" and, desiring harmony, usually get along well with all the other temperament combinations. These people are usually family and relationship-oriented and take their commitments seriously. Like Solid Gold/True Blues, True Blue/Solid Golds have an innate sense of duty and strong desire to contribute to society so they are often involved in their community, whether through their local school, church, social service clubs or civic groups. They give of their time and energy freely and happily. They can be so caring, supportive, dedicated and loyal to others that they run the risk of over-working, burning out, or not taking good enough care of themselves due to their sense of duty and obligation. Learning how to delegate responsibility and say "no" sometimes are important lessons for True Blue/Solid Golds. They usually make practical career choices. Healthy True Blue/Solid Golds are: compassionate, sensible, prudent, diplomatic, kind, empathetic, cooperative, caring and conscientious.
True Blue/Bold Orange: These warm, fun-loving, free-spirited people want to make a positive impact on life in their own unique, humanitarian way. True Blue/Bold Oranges are more adventurous, spontaneous and risk-taking than the other True Blue combination types. They often love being outdoors or in nature. Many really enjoy traveling, playing sports or doing other physical, action-oriented activities. Some of these freedom-loving people are entrepreneurial and make their living helping others improve themselves and their lives. Others, who are more politically-minded, are courageous, outspoken, social advocates and activists. Yet others are artsy types that are into music, crafts, art, fashion, drama or anything emphasizing creativity, aesthetics or artistic expression. Most True Blue/Bold Oranges are unconventional, witty, charming and flirtatious. They love variety and may change careers often or integrate their many interests into their chosen career. At the least they need a job that has a flexible organizational structure and allows for innovative ideas and personal growth. Healthy True Blue/Bold Oranges are: expressive, ingenious, original, communicative, intuitive, motivating and inspiring.
Deep Green/True Blue: These profound, idealistic, inventive thinkers are often several steps ahead of their contemporaries. They are creative, imaginative and insatiably curious. Like True Blue/Deep Greens, Deep Green/True Blues ask "the big questions" of life..... and get answers. While all Deep Greens want to be well-informed and recognized for their ingenious ideas, Deep Green/True Blues want to be well-informed about humanitarian/global issues and recognized for their ingenious ideas, models and/or theories that create more peace, happiness and goodwill for people and our planet. As leaders, they are often interested in international relations, world politics, environmental causes and/or developing the capabilities of others. The sometimes reserved, cool, aloof demeanor of Deep Green/True Blues belies their truly compassionate, sensitive and tender-hearted nature. With their highly objective, scientific, analytical minds and ability to see the big picture, these unconventional, strategic, visionary thinkers find great joy in solving complex problems that not only benefit humankind now but will for future generations to come. Healthy Deep Green/True Blues are: intelligent (sometimes brilliant), innovative, original, philosophical, spiritual, humanitarian, benevolent, insightful, intuitive and futuristic.
Deep Green/Solid Gold: These people are both sensible, conscientious and reliable as well as innovative, independent and firm-minded. They are constantly coming up with original solutions to problems and become frustrated with organizations that are too rule-bound and bureaucratic to change. These people are highly productive since they have a natural hard-work ethic, are effective time managers, can delay gratification and do everything in their power to achieve their goals on time. Deep Green/Solid Golds are excellent at making decisions and analyzing raw data to draw insightful yet objective conclusions. They have high expectations of themselves and others and can easily suffer from overwork, stress and/or burnout from being too overly responsible and perfectionistic. They put a lot of pressure on themselves and others to be ultra competent, capable and dependable. Deep Green/Solid Golds are private people who have a hard time asking for help from others but it is vital that they do so when necessary to maintain their health and sanity. Healthy Deep Green/Solid Golds are: organized, efficient, thorough, careful, self-reliant, decisive, punctual, tenacious, trustworthy and loyal.
Deep Green/Bold Orange: These unconventional people are natural problem solvers, troubleshooters and inventors. That's because they're resourceful, creative and continuously probing for alternatives and possibilities when trying to solve problems. They have a non-conformist spirit and are most reluctant to do something in a particular way just because that's the way it's always been done before. On the contrary, they live by their own standards and are constantly on the lookout for better ways to do things. They love exploring new ideas, methods and enterprises. Deep Green/Bold Oranges are entrepreneurial, risk-taking and independent. They prefer to work for themselves but if they do work for a company it needs to be one where they are given leeway to work according to their own schedule. They also need plenty of opportunities for creativity and innovation. Deep Green/Bold Oranges love taking on new challenges and are more eager to boldly take action and just "go for it" than any other Deep Green combination type. They are also the most freedom-loving of the Deep Green combination types; variety and change are their constant companions. Healthy Deep Green/Bold Oranges are: ingenious, visionary, flexible, inventive and competitive (at the very least with themselves).
Solid Gold/True Blue: These friendly, pragmatic, service-oriented people truly care about the welfare of others. With their innate sense of duty and desire to contribute to society they are often involved in their community, whether through their local school, church, social service clubs or civic groups. These people give of their time and energy freely and happily. That's because they are compassionate, empathetic and love helping people. Home, family and relationships are all extremely important to Solid Gold/True Blues. They do everything in their power to make sure their family and friends and well taken care of. They also make sure their house is neat and tidy. They are hard working and willing to do the dirty work and detail work that others don't want to do. Solid Gold/True Blues are sentimental about observing family traditions and rituals at the holidays. Most Solid Gold parents have clear "shoulds" and "shouldn'ts" that their children have to abide by but Solid Gold/True Blues are more understanding and accepting of their kids' differences. Like True Blue/Solid Golds, Solid Gold/True Blues need to be careful not to overdo for others and neglect themselves. Healthy Solid Gold/True Blues are: affectionate, caring, sensible, responsible, loyal, dependable, organized, thorough and conscientious.
Solid Gold/Deep Green: These dependable, trustworthy people are hard-working, intellectual, logical, and rely heavily on facts, figures and information. They are both innovative and practical, academic and results-oriented. They like to be mentally challenged. They are great at coordinating projects, gathering and analyzing data, and working with detailed systems. Many put their mental competence to good use in such fields as technology, math, science, law, engineering or computer science, to name a few. Some assertive and decisive Solid Gold/Deep Greens like to lead or administrate. They are supervisors, managers or directors who know how to manage people, direct operations, monitor people's performance, enforce policies and procedures, and get things done efficiently. Other Solid Gold/Deep Greens like to coordinate operations to get the maximum productivity with a minimum waste of time, energy and resources. They like to make systems work more efficiently and some excel in quality control and regulatory compliance. Healthy Solid Gold/Deep Greens are: loyal, reliable, stable, family-oriented, responsible, competent, firm-minded, principled and objective.
Solid Gold/Bold Orange: These responsible, practical people can either harmoniously blend the best of their two different selves or be at odds with themselves. At best, Solid Gold/Bold Oranges are both structured and flexible, sensible and adventurous, well organized and open to change, cautious and spontaneous, industrious and playful, etc. As these people are Solid Golds primarily, they like to have a plan and schedule for the day but because they are Bold Oranges secondarily they adapt well to changing circumstances. Solid Gold/Bold Oranges are able to go with the flow, overcome challenges, and deal with chaos better than any other Solid Gold combination type. These people want to live a carefree, exciting life like Bold Oranges but can often find that their dutiful nature bogs them down with red tape and rules to adhere to. When young this combination type is often torn between doing the right thing versus doing the risky, non-conforming thing. These people like to take advantage of opportunities so they generally like to keep organized and on top of things so that they can act on a moment's notice should the opportunity arise. Healthy Solid Gold/Bold Oranges are: self-confident, able to take charge, generous, loyal, dependable, sociable, realistic, sensible, down-to-earth, helpful and trustworthy.
Bold Orange/True Blue: These people blend all of the wit, charm and spontaneity of Bold Oranges with the empathy, love and compassion of True Blues. These are enthusiastic, sensual, excitable people with a touch of romanticism and idealism. They are also very generous, a trait of both Bold Oranges and True Blues. These people are socially active and interactive. They are usually drawn to careers where their warm and friendly nature is appreciated and where they can be of practical service to others. They dislike interpersonal conflict and thrive in a supportive, affirming, adaptable environment. Work that is consistent with their strong personal values is important. Bold Orange/True Blues often enjoy jobs in fields such as sales, marketing, travel, civil service, social service, education and health care, to name a few. Bold Orange/True Blues are open-minded and interested in personal growth, so important to their True Blue aspect. The need for independence and freedom of Bold Oranges can often be at odds with the need for connecting with others in a deep, intimate way of True Blues. Both freedom and closeness are desired. These people are often creative and/or artistic. Healthy Bold Orange/True Blues are: playful, fun-loving, energetic, entertaining, instinctive, spontaneous, passionate and engaging.
Bold Orange/Deep Green: These irreverent, unconventional people focus on doing what works as opposed to doing what's right, like True Blues and Solid Golds. They are natural problem solvers and troubleshooters. They also like to thwart bureaucrats and improve standard operating procedures. This combination makes these people both tactical and strategic. That means they are gifted at using tools and operating all kinds of equipment to get things done in a moment's notice but it also means they are gifted at making long-range plans and constructing technologies in order to achieve their thought out objectives. They are brimming with creative energy and have the self-confidence and desire to take immediate action that makes them natural entrepreneurs. These people are full of possibilities, alternatives and solutions to complex problems. Their greatest challenge is implementing the opportunities they dream up before they get bored and want to move on to the next project. For this reason, Bold Orange/Deep Greens do well to have someone with great organization skills, a detail-oriented mind and excellent follow-through (like any of the Solid Gold combinations) to help them. Healthy Bold Orange/Deep Greens are: action-oriented, calculated risk-takers, ambitious, pragmatic, logical, great communicators and negotiators, nonconforming, able to read people well, able to take charge and seize opportunities.
Bold Orange/Solid Gold: These fun-loving, spontaneous people love to seize the moment (and they might even think about the consequences for the future because of their Solid Gold aspect). Their attitude that tomorrow may never come only encourages them to act on impulse but Bold Orange/Solid Golds are usually aware of their actions. These people tend to work hard, are good at detail work, masters of tools and heavy equipment, and enjoy solving practical problems. If they are extraverted they can be especially good at marketing, sales, negotiating, service work, trade work or organizing special events. These people are the most family-oriented of the Bold Oranges. They are still freedom-loving Bold Oranges but the Solid Gold aspect of their personality allows them to be responsible and dependable spouses and parents. Bold Oranges are notorious for losing track of time and showing up late to events and appointments but Bold Orange/Solid Golds may be one of the few Bold Orange combination types that are good at being on time. Bold Orange/Solid Golds are often avid athletes and sports fans. They usually play and/or watch football, basketball and baseball. Charming, fun and funny, these are some of the most popular people in high school. Healthy Bold Orange/Solid Golds are: self-assured, adaptable, optimistic, generous, loyal, reliable, sociable, pragmatic, shrewd, down-to-earth and trustworthy.
Now that you've had a chance to learn what the Jungian-Keirsey system is, some of its practical applications, and some of the personality traits of each type and temperament, you might like to understand how the system works. So, I will discuss the following in turn: (1) the structure of the Jungian-Keirsey system, (2) preferences, (3) types, (4) the temperaments, and (5) mental processes.
The Jungian-Keirsey system is based on the idea that people are born with psychological preferences, just as people are born with a preference for handedness. Everyone has a preference, however slight or considerable, for right or left-handedness. Even though everyone uses both hands all the time, it requires less psychological energy to use our preferred hand and so we tend to become more dexterous and skillful with it over time. The same is true with how our mind functions.
In this system there are eight personality preferences paired as opposites within four categories (dimensions). Everyone has a preference for either:
Extraverting (E) or Introverting (I)
Sensing (S) or iNtuiting (N)
Thinking (T) or Feeling (F)
Judging (J) or Perceiving (P)
It is important to note that we definitely can and do use all 8 preferences but, within each pair, each of us favors one preference over the other, however slightly or considerably, because it comes more easily and naturally.
|The Four Pairs of Jungian-Keirsey Opposite Preferences||What Each Pair of Preferences Indicates|
|Extraverting (E) or Introverting (I)||Where we prefer to focus our attention and get energized|
|Sensing (S) or Intuiting (N)||How we prefer to perceive/take in information|
|Thinking (T) or Feeling (F)||How we prefer to evaluate information and make decisions|
|Judging (J) or Perceiving (P)||How we prefer to orient ourselves to the external world|
The words used to name the preferences do not correspond to regular dictionary definitions, so please don't "read into" what the words might mean to you.
Choosing one preference from each pair above will form a four-letter acronym (code) that represents each Jungian-Keirsey type. For example, if someone has a preference for Introverting, Intuiting, Feeling, and Perceiving, their Jungian-Keirsey type code is INFP. Please understand that the combination of individual preferences is greater than the sum of its parts. They interact in unique ways as you will see when you read the Temperaments section and the Mental Processes section below. Keep in mind that as we evolve in self-awareness we are better able to utilize the preferences that are not our preferred preferences.
|What Are Your Jungian-Keirsey Preferences?|
Talk it out
Energized interacting with people
Drained by too much alone time
Think it through
Enjoy working quietly alone
Drained by too much interaction
Informed by the five senses
See what is
Pay attention to specifics
Informed by the inner voice
See what could be
Focus on the big picture
Impact on people
Prefer to finish projects
Like to stick with plans
Enjoy the results
Prefer to start projects
Like the freedom to change plans
Enjoy the process
The Jungian-Keirsey system describes 16 uniquely different types of people based on inborn preferences each type has for the way their brain functions. The 16 types are: ESTJ, ESFJ, ISTJ, ISFJ, ESTP, ESFP, ISTP, ISFP, ENTJ, ENTP, INTJ, INTP, ENFJ, ENFP, INFJ and INFP.
According to Jungian-Keirsey theory, everyone in the world can be classified into one of these 16 types. Many people don't believe that they can be "typed" but a man named Jonathan P. Niednagel (a self-proclaimed ISTP), founder of the Brain Type Institute, is currently testing each of the 16 "Brain Types®" (as he calls them) by DNA analysis to prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that there are indeed 16 different Brain Types®. He is a world-renowned consultant for professional sports teams and has shown that each of the 16 types has unique, innate cerebral, motor, and spatial skill traits (very important to understand for optimizing sports performance) as well as psychological characteristics.
Another, equally important component of the Jungian-Keirsey system is the temperaments, based on David Keirsey's temperament theory discussed in the first section on this page, A Brief History of the Jungian-Keirsey System. Temperament is an inborn predisposition that defines a person's core needs and values. Although we do change in many ways throughout life, our temperament remains the same. There are four distinctly different temperaments, which I've named: (1) True Blue, (2) Deep Green, (3) Solid Gold and (4) Bold Orange. Each temperament is the root of four different Jungian-Keirsey types (see tables below). The four Jungian-Keirsey types within each temperament share the same core needs and values and many of the same inborn talents.
The 4 Different Temperaments
|4 Sensing Judging Types (SJ):|
|4 Intuiting Feeling Types (NF):|
|4 Sensing Perceiving Types (SP):|
|4 Intuitive Thinking Types (NT):|
According to the Jungian-Keirsey system, there are eight mental processes that everyone uses regularly. These are very important to have a basic understanding of because through them we can increase our self-awareness, fully make use of our inborn gifts/talents, and develop our less preferred mental processes to become more balanced and whole. If you recall from the Preferences section above, we perceive information using Sensing and Intuiting and evaluate information using Thinking and Feeling. There are 8 mental processes rather than 4 because Sensing, Intuiting, Thinking and Feeling can each be stimulated by the outer, external world or by our own internal world. Therefore, there can be Extraverted Sensing (Se) and Introverted Sensing (Si), Extraverted Intuiting (Ne) and Introverted Intuiting (Ni), Extraverted Thinking (Te) and Introverted Thinking (Ti), Extraverted Feeling (Fe) and Introverted Feeling (Fi). So, there are four different ways of perceiving information (Se, Si, Ne, Ni) and four different ways of evaluating information (Te, Ti, Fe, Fi) that people have varying preferences for using.
Clicking on any of the active links below will give you a more full description of that mental process, which will open in a new window.
The four mental processes used to perceive information (collect data) are:Extraverted Sensing (Se) - (Keyword: Experiencing)
The four mental processes used to evaluate information (make decisions) are:Extraverted Feeling (Fe) - (Keyword: Harmonizing)
Although we use all 8 mental processes regularly, each of us is born with a preference for perceiving information one particular way and a preference for evaluating information one particular way. For example, the Jungian-Keirsey type INTP prefers to perceive information using Extraverted Intuiting and evaluate information using Introverted Thinking. The preferred use of two mental processes - one to access information and one to evaluate information - is, to a large degree, what creates the 16 unique Jungian-Keirsey types.
If you have already taken The Jungian-Keirsey Type and Temperament Self-Assessment, then you can use the following table to identify your dominant mental process and your auxiliary (support) mental process by knowing your Jungian-Keirsey type code (the 4 letter code). Notice that one mental process is used in the external world and the other mental process is used in the internal world for each of the 16 types. When each process is well developed, this allows for greater balance between introversion and extraversion in the personality. These two mental processes have the potential to be our greatest joy and gift to the world if developed well or our greatest misery if overused or underused.
The Dominant and Auxiliary Mental Processes for Each Jungian-Keirsey Type
|Temperament||Type Code||Dominant Mental Process||Auxiliary Mental Process|
|Solid Golds||ESTJ||extraverted Thinking (Te)||introverted Sensing (Si)|
|ESFJ||extraverted Feeling (Fe)||introverted Sensing (Si)|
|ISTJ||introverted Sensing (Si)||extraverted Thinking (Te)|
|ISFJ||introverted Sensing (Si)||extraverted Feeling (Fe)|
|Bold Oranges||ESTP||extraverted Sensing (Se)||introverted Thinking (Ti)|
|ESFP||extraverted Sensing (Se)||introverted Feeling (Fi)|
|ISTP||introverted Thinking (Ti)||extraverted Sensing (Se)|
|ISFP||introverted Feeling (Fi)||extraverted Sensing (Se)|
|Deep Greens||ENTJ||extraverted Thinking (Te)||introverted iNtuiting (Ni)|
|ENTP||extraverted iNtuiting (Ne)||introverted Thinking (Ti)|
|INTJ||introverted iNtuiting (Ni)||extraverted Thinking (Te)|
|INTP||introverted Thinking (Ti)||extraverted iNtuiting (Ne)|
|True Blues||ENFJ||extraverted Feeling (Fe)||introverted iNtuiting (Ni)|
|ENFP||extraverted iNtuiting (Ne)||introverted Feeling (Fi)|
|INFJ||introverted iNtuiting (Ni)||extraverted Feeling (Fe)|
|INFP||introverted Feeling (Fi)||extraverted iNtuiting (Ne)|
According to Carl Jung, the psyche is dynamic and always seeking balance. There is an inner drive to grow, to become more aware - to individuate, as he called it. We are all born basically unaware (unconscious), and life is a process of becoming more and more aware (conscious). This is called "Type Development" in Jungian language.